JOHN DEERE "10 SERIES" TRACTORS
On August 30, 1959, in Dallas, Texas, with great fanfare the John Deere Company introduced a New Generation of four and six-cylinder tractors to replace the two-cylinder tractors which had brought the company fame and fortune for decades. "Deere Day in Dallas" was held at the Cotton Bowl in Dallas and featured a barbecue, music by Al Hirt's New Orlean Jazz Band, and a grand unveiling of a gem-garnished Model 3010 tractor by Stanley Marcus, the President of the famous Neiman-Marcus Department Store, with John Deere's President William A. Hewitt at his side. Following those events, attendees were led to the 15-acre parking lot, where 136 tractors and 324 implements and other pieces of equipment were on display. Approximately 6,000 individuals--primarilly dealers and their wives--had been flown in on more than 100 airplanes from 75 major cities around the country for the occasion. Simultaneously, truck-loads of the new tractors had been transported in secrecy to dealerships all over the United States, so that prospective buyers could view the new tractors at the same time as those in Dallas. Forbes Magazine called this event "John Deere's boldest venture in its 124-year history."
The new line consisted of Models 1010, 2010, 3010, 4010, and 8010. Models 1010 and 2010 were built in Dubuque, Iowa; Models 3010, 4010, and 8010 were made in Waterloo, Iowa. The Model 8010 had actually been introduced in Marshalltown, Iowa, in 1959, but problems with the transmission led to its being replaced by the Model 8020 in 1960. The Model 5010 became available in 1962; it was the first two-wheel-drive tractor with more than 100 horsepower. In 1965, the Model 2510 was introduced as an interim model to fill a gap between Models 2010 and 3010.
New Generation tractors bore little resemblence to earlier John Deere tractors. Company engineers had long realized that the horizontal two-cylinder engine had been developed about as far as it could at that time, and the decision to develop a new line of four and six-cylinder tractors was made in 1953. Engineers worked in great secrecy in an old grocery store known as the "Butcher Shop" in Waterloo, Iowa. Experiments were made with V-6 and V-8 engines, but they proved to be too wide for row-crop tractors, and they also transferred too much heat to the operator's station. In earlier times, corn rows had been as much as 42 inches apart to accomodate horses pulling implements. With the advent of tractor-pulled and tractor-mounted implements, the distance between corn rows decreased to 40 inches, then down to 38 inches, and even to 36 inches.
Engineers of the new "10 Series" were charged to produce tractors which (1) accomodated existing implements, (2) were easier to attach to implements, (3) featured increased horsepower and fuel economy, (4) improved operator comfort and convenience, (5) had improved hydraulic systems. and (6) were easier to handle and control.
New Generation tractors were designed by Henry Dreyfuss and Associates, the same company that designed styled John Deeres back in the late 1930's and early 1940's. Emphasis was placed on operator comfort and convenience. A common ailment of farmers was "tractor back," caused by days, months and years of being jolted on hard pan seats. Most New Generation tractors had greatly-improved operator's stations designed by Henry Dreyfuss and Associates in consultation with Dr. Janet Travell, an orthopedic physican and back specialist who later served as White-House physican for President John F. Kennedy. The economy-version Special Row Crop Utility had the traditional pan seat. The new seats were mounted on rails which allowed them to be moved to accomodate operators of different sizes, and the seats could also be moved back and up to allow operators to stand. Steering wheels were mounted at a more convenient angle and most controls were mounted on the dashboard, where they were easier to reach.
The new tractors had a higher horsepower-to-weight ratio than earlier models, which allowed them to haul greater equipment loads at higher speeds, reduced the lugging of the engine, and provided greater fuel efficiency. The engines were placed near the rear--close to the transmission and differential--to put as much weight as possible over the rear wheels. The lighter fuel tanks and radiators were placed in the front. Approximately 95% of the parts on "10 Series" tractors were newly designed and manufactured. Not only did this allow John Deere Company to design tractors "from the ground up," it also enabled the Company to replace aging and worn factory equipment. Approximately forty-million dollars was spent retooling for the new series.
Most "10 Series" tractors were available with two or three different engines--gasoline, diesel, or LP gas. None of the new models were "all fuel" tractors which were started on gasoline and then switched over to kerosene or distillate. Models 1010, 2010, and 3010 had four-cylinder engines; Models 4010, 5010, and 8010 had six-cylinder engines. Model 8010 was unique in that it had a General Motors two-cycle diesel engine with a Roote's blower
Closed-center hydraulic systems provided up to three independent "live" hydraulic circuits: one circuit was dedicated to the power steering; another to the power brakes; and the third to the rockshafts, three-point hitch, and one or two remote cylinders. The Model 1010 had a five-speed sliding-gear manual transmission (four-speed on the crawler); the other tractors featured Syncro-Range transmissions, which provided eight forward and three reverse gears. These transmissions incorporated synchronizers (small clutches) which allowed operators to change speeds on the move in each of four ranges and to shuttle-shift between forward and reverse. PTO's offered speeds of 540 or 1,000 RPM. The three-point hitches featured lower-link sensing.
The Model 1010 was basically the Model 430 tractor, with a new engine and redesigned tin. The Model 2010 consisted mostly of new parts and represented a new and larger size of tractor for the Dubuque factory. The engine of the Model 2010, as well as that of the Model 1010, was based on a sleeve and deck design which provided efficient heat dissipation. Engineers in the Dubuque factory had considerable experience with vertical, water-cooled engines and this was evident in these engines. The styling of the Model 2010, however, was more like that of the tractors manufactured in the Waterloo factory--Models 3010 and 4010. Models 3010, 4010, and eventually the 5010, were completely new designs. The Model 3010 was down-sized from the Model 4010. The Model 4010 was the only one of the series in which the LPG tank was completely hidden under the hood. It was the largest two-wheel-drive tractor available at that time. The Model 5010 was massive and overbuilt. The Model 8010 was unique in that it was a four-wheel-drive articulated tractor and years ahead of its time. It was very costly--$30,000--and only about 100 were built.
The new line of tractors were submitted to extensive testing in Texas, Arkansas and Utah, as well as Iowa. The tractors used in the tests were painted red and were fitted with false shrouds, to maintain secrecy. The tractors were also run in a cold room at -30 degrees Fahrenheit, to make sure that they would start in cold weather.
The "10 Series" was not without problems. For example, the Model 2010 was rushed into production without the extensive design and testing provided other models. The power-train was not as durable as it should have been and the diesel engine was notoriously hard to start in cold weather. Significant improvements were made in 1963, including the redesign and strengthening of transmission parts, the addition of glow plugs to the diesel engine, a lower range of transmission speeds, easier rear-wheel adjustment, easier servicing, faster power-steering, and a new front rockshaft with down-pressure. The Model 8010 incorporated a truck transmission which ran hot under load, causing the seals to leak and spill oil over the clutch. This was discovered soon after the tractor was introduced in 1959, and all Model 8010's were recalled, repaired and returned to their owners as Model 8020's.
The Model 3010 was replaced by the Model 3020 in 1964, the Model 1010 was replaced by Models 1020 (three-cylinder) and 2020 (four-cylinder) in 1965, and Models 2010 and 5010 were replaced by Models 2510 and 5020 in 1966.
Production of the agricultural crawler versions of Models 1010 and 2010 was teminated in 1964, when the production of industrial tractors was consolidated within a separate division of the John Deere Company
The John Deere Company's gamble on New Generation tractors paid off; "10 Series" tractors were very popular. For example, from 1960 to 1963, the Company sold approximately 45,000 Model 3010 tractors and 58,000 Model 4010 tractors. It rose from a position of having 23% of the market in 1959 to 34% in 1964. In 1963, it became the top manufacturer of farm equipment in the United States.
For additional information about the John Deere Model 2010, please click on John Deere Model 2010
|"10 SERIES" VERSIONS PRODUCED|
|VERSIONS||Model 1010||Model 2010||Model 2510||Model 3010||Model 4010||Model 5010||Model 8010|
|Row Crop (R)||X||X||X||X||X|
|Row Crop Utility (RU)||X||X|
|Low Utility (LU)|
|Special Row Crop Utility (RUS)||X||X|
|Single Row Crop (RS)||X|
|High Crop Utility (HU)|
|High Crop (H)||X||X||X||X|
|Ag Crawler (CA)||X||X|
|Four-Wheel Drive, Articulated||X|
|BEGINNING SERIAL NUMBERS OF "10 SERIES" MODELS|
|Model 1010C||Model 2010||Model 2010C||Model 2510||Model 3010||Model 4010||Model 5010||Model 8010|
|(1) Sequences 27880-29000 & 40264-42000 were not used|
|(2) 390 numbers were scrapped & 350 numbers were assigned to Monterey, Mexico|
|(3) Estimated; not all numbers in sequence were used|
|PRICES OF NEW TRACTORS|
Diesel option $500
Live PTO $115
Diesel option $800
Diesel option $500
Hi-Crop option $1,200
Power Shift option $600
Standard (gas) $3,792
Row-Crop Utility (gas) $3,631
Row-Crop (LPG) $3,800
Standard (LPG) $4,067
Row Crop Utility (LPG) $3,906
Row-Crop (diesel) $4,100
Standard (diesel) $4,367
Row-Crop Utility (diesel) $4,206
Diesel option $700
LPG option $300
Three-point hitch $179
|5010||$10,730 with standard equipment|