This engine was featured in the following article: Thompson, Glenn. "The Aermotor 2 1/2 hp General Purpose Engine." Gas Engine Magazine, vol. 53, no. 5, August/September 2018, pp. 9-13.
Photos of the Aermotor Engine can be viewed by clicking on Aermotor Photos.
Rural residents of the Texas Hill Country often get their weekly paper a day later than their neighbors living in town, so when Dierre Smith and his wife Becky looked at the paper that they just pulled out of the mailbox, they were dismayed to read that an estate sale was already underway to liquidate the worldly possessions of a couple who had lived on a nearby ranch. Dierre and Becky went to the sale as soon as they could, but many of the items had already been snapped up by eager buyers—especially the antique tools and implements that Dierre and Becky found most interesting.
Becky is especially interested in old boxes and she was able to acquire a few wooden ones that appealed to her. When the Smiths inspected their new acquisitions after they arrived home, they found a cylindrical object in one of the boxes. At first glance, Dierre thought that it was a dry-cell battery that had been used in one of the old wall-mounted telephones. After closer inspection, however, he realized that it actually was the ignition coil from an old engine. Operating under the assumption that “Where there's smoke, there's fire,” Dierre and Becky hastily returned to the estate sale and inquired if there were any old engines for sale.
The woman in charge of the sale was the daughter of the previous owners and she didn't remember that there were any engines sitting around, but she did recall that there was “an old pump or something” sitting in one corner of the chicken coop and she invited the Smiths to take a look at it. As an afterthought, she mentioned that she thought her husband was interested in keeping whatever it was. When Dierre spotted the “old pump,” his heart skipped a beat because he instantly recognized the fluted hopper as the water hopper of an old Aermotor engine.
Becky and Dierre had been friends of the couple having the sale for years, so Dierre knew where the husband worked and he immediately drove there and offered as much for the engine as he felt that he could afford—plus a little more. The man indicated that he had been planning on restoring the engine but just hadn't gotten around to it. He said that he would think about Dierre's offer for three or four days.
Dierre counted down the hours and the minutes during the next few days and then contacted the owner of the engine. The man said that although he was interested in the engine, realistically he probably would never get around to restoring it, so he agreed to sell it. Without further hesitation, money changed hands and the deal was completed.
The Aermotor is well known as the company that has made windmills since 1888, but fewer people remember that it also made gasoline engines from the early 1900's into the 1940's. These included general purpose engines, such as the one Dierre acquired, and both small and large engines specifically designed to pump water. The engines were based on a design by the founder of the Aermotor Company, LaVerne W. Noyes.
Dierre's Aermotor generates 2 ½ hp at 400 rpm. It has a 4 1/8 inch bore and a 6 inch stroke. Its two 24 inch flywheels weigh 100 pounds each and the total weight of the engine is approximately 600 pounds. In 1920, the engine sold for $115.00 with a battery and coil ignition. The number 1117.K is stamped on the side of the engine. An engine equipped with a magneto would have cost several dollars more. One of the tasks which the engine performed was to power a mechanical clipper to shear sheep. Unfortunately, Dierre and Becky arrived at the estate sale too late to acquire the clipper which had been used with this engine.
Typical of many early engines, the Aermotor is water cooled; however, its appearance is distinctive because it has an open, galvanized-steel water hopper which is funnel-shaped and fluted to provide a large surface area to dissipate heat as rapidly as possible. This design to considered to be much more efficient than the cast-iron hoppers found on most early engines.
Also, typical of other engines produced during the early 1900's, Dierre's Aermotor is based on a hit-or-miss design The exhaust valve is activated by a lever which is either held open or released by a governor to regulate the speed of the engine. The intake valve is not operated mechanically; it is sucked open by the vacuum caused by the piston descending within the cylinder during the intake stroke. This type of intake valve is known as an “atmospheric valve.”
Dierre's Aermotor does not have a spark plug. Instead, it has “make-and-break” points mounted within the combustion chamber. These points are closed as an electrical charge builds up in the ignition coil during the engine's compression stroke. Just before the piston reaches dead center at the top of the cylinder and the fuel-air mixture is compressed to its maximum, the points separate and a spark jumps from one point to the other, igniting the fuel-air mixture and producing the combustion stroke which pushes the piston down within the cylinder. The mechanism which operates the exhaust valve also trips the ignitor. Dierre's engine is typical of most Aermotors sold in that the electricity required for ignition is produced by a battery; however, Aermotor engines with magnetos were also available at additional cost.
Most of the bearings on Dierre's Aermotor engine are are lubricated through cups or pipes containing wicking soaked with oil. The connecting rod is the only bearing with a grease cup. This engine is painted burgandy; other Aermotor engines were painted dark green, red or gray.
The other general-purpose engine produced by Aermotor had a 5 inch bore and a 7 ½ inch stroke. It's two 30 inch flywheels each weighed 150 pounds and the total weight of the engine was 1,000 pounds. In 1920, the 5 hp engine sold for $155 with battery ignition and $165 with a magneto.
One of the more popular Aermotor pumping engines was a relatively small 1 hp engine. It was unique in that it was an 8-cycle engine. The cycles included intake, compression, ignition, exhaust, breathe, exhaust, breath, exhaust. In other words, ignition occurred only once every four revolutions. Additional breathe and exhaust strokes were introduced as needed to govern the speed. During the extra strokes, the engine took in or expelled air through the muffler and open exhaust valve. Gasoline was taken in during the intake stroke, but only if the speed of the engine decreased to the point where the governor allowed the exhaust valve to close. Increased fuel efficiency was claimed with the 8-cycle design. Also, the engine ran cool and did not need a cooling fan. An optional camshaft was available to convert the engine to 4-cycle operation so that it could handle a heavy load such as a pump in a deep well.
small pumping engines incorporated gears with the engine to
significantly increase the torque to the point where the small engine
was able to move a sucker rod up and down in a well and push water up
a pipe. The sucker rod and pipe extended through the
down into the well to a pumping cylinder and foot valve below the
water level. The engine and pump with a cast-iron base cost
with battery ignition and $64 with a magneto. This engine and pump
was especially suited for operation in cold climates and for pumping
water a long distance.
A unique feature of some Aermotor pumping engines was that they had small fuel tanks mounted directly on their carburetors. This enabled an operator to add only the amount of gasoline necessary to run an engine long enough to complete a given task—such as filling a water tank. The operator could start the engine and leave it unattended, knowing that the engine would shut itself off once the task was completed.
Larger Aermotor pumping engines were sometimes cooled with well water and didn't have water hoppers. These engines were often mounted over pumps located in pits under the engines.
The first Aermotor windmill was introduced in 1888, based on a design by Thomas O. Perry, and the Aermotor Company has been a leader in the windmill field ever since. The company was based in Chicago for more than seventy years. Then, following a series of sales, the company was moved to Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, next to Conway, Arkansas, and finally to San Angelo, Texas, where it is currently located. Manufacturing was moved to Argentina in 1969 but returned to the United States in 1980. The Aermotor Company is currently owned by a group of West Texas ranchers; it has expanded to produce water pumps and solar power products. It remains the only company in the United States which manufactures windmills. Its products are sold worldwide.